Provided herein is a method for gene expression profiling multiple myeloma patients into distinct subgroups via DNA hybridization and hierarchical clustering analysis of the hybridization data, where the results may further be used to identify therapeutic gene targets. Also provided is a method for controlling bone loss in an individual via pharmacological inhibitors of DKK1 protein. In addition, provided herein is a method for diagnosing multiple myeloma using a 15-gene model that classifies myeloma into groups 1-7.
1. A method for diagnosis of multiple myeloma, comprising the steps of:(a) isolating plasma cells from an individual;(b) examining the mRNA levels of a group of genes comprising CCND1, MAF, MAFB, FGFR3, and MMSET or determining chromosomal translocation of genes comprising CCND1, MAF, MAFB, FGFR3, and MMSET; and(c) examining the mRNA levels of a group of genes comprising CST6, RAB7L1, MAP4K3, HRASLS2, TRAIL, IG, FGL2, GNG11, MCM2 and FLJ10709, wherein results from steps (b) and (c) classify the individual into one of multiple myeloma group 1 which has high levels of IG/FLG2 and low levels of GNG11, MCM2, FLJ10709, or group 2 which has high levels of GNG11 and low levels of IG/FLG2, MCM2, FLJ10709, or group 3 which has a spike in levels of CCND1, or group 4 which has high levels of MCM2, FLJ10709 and low levels of IG/FGL2, GNG11, or group 5 which has a spike in levels of MAF/MAFB, or group 6 which has high levels of CST6, RAB7L1, MAP4k3, HRASLS2 and low levels of TRAIL, or group 7 which has a spike in levels of FGFR3/MMSET.